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§ 1194

508 Additional Notes

§ 1194.22 Web-based intranet and internet information and applications.

From http://www.section508.gov/final_text.html#Web

(a) A text equivalent for every non-text element shall be provided (e.g., via "alt", "longdesc", or in element content).

(b) Equivalent alternatives for any multimedia presentation shall be synchronized with the presentation.

(c) Web pages shall be designed so that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for example from context or markup.

(d) Documents shall be organized so they are readable without requiring an associated style sheet.

(e) Redundant text links shall be provided for each active region of a server-side image map.

(f) Client-side image maps shall be provided instead of server-side image maps except where the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape.

(g) Row and column headers shall be identified for data tables.

(h) Markup shall be used to associate data cells and header cells for data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers.

(i) Frames shall be titled with text that facilitates frame identification and navigation.

(j) Pages shall be designed to avoid causing the screen to flicker with a frequency greater than 2 Hz and lower than 55 Hz.

(k) A text-only page, with equivalent information or functionality, shall be provided to make a web site comply with the provisions of this part, when compliance cannot be accomplished in any other way. The content of the text-only page shall be updated whenever the primary page changes.

(l) When pages utilize scripting languages to display content, or to create interface elements, the information provided by the script shall be identified with functional text that can be read by assistive technology.

(m) When a web page requires that an applet, plug-in or other application be present on the client system to interpret page content, the page must provide a link to a plug-in or applet that complies with §1194.21(a) through (l).

(n) When electronic forms are designed to be completed on-line, the form shall allow people using assistive technology to access the information, field elements, and functionality required for completion and submission of the form, including all directions and cues.

(o) A method shall be provided that permits users to skip repetitive navigation links.

(p) When a timed response is required, the user shall be alerted and given sufficient time to indicate more time is required.

Note to §1194.22: 1. The Board interprets paragraphs (a) through (k) of this section as consistent with the following priority 1 Checkpoints of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 (WCAG 1.0) (May 5, 1999) published by the Web Accessibility Initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium:

Section 1194.22 Paragraph

WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint























2. Paragraphs (l), (m), (n), (o), and (p) of this section are different from WCAG 1.0. Web pages that conform to WCAG 1.0, level A (i.e., all priority 1 checkpoints) must also meet paragraphs (l), (m), (n), (o), and (p) of this section to comply with this section. WCAG 1.0 is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/WAI-WEBCONTENT-19990505.




Mike there were a few things that I noticed that you might want to add. Below is

some code a wrote recently. 508 strictly says that you must use <caption> tags

on all data tables. It will not pass an audit here if they don't have them. Also

I would give an example of how to set up a data table with multiple rows hence

the cfvariable "r" below. Here at POSTAL, we use a text to speech program called

JAWS. This program treats a one row table like the one on page 3 of your word

document as a layout table and the "summary" attribute is not read in a layout

table. 508 Auditors have hit me with stupid shit that they interpreted wrong

such as all tables(including layout tables) need summaries. This is wrong but

just to keep them off my back I just put summaries for all my tables. This

wording is ' summary="Layout table"  .' This usually makes them happy. Also the

way the do an audit is by viewing the source from the browser. They don't audit

using any text to speech readers. In the w3.org for html 4.0 you can replace the

"ID" attribute in the <th> tag with 'scope="col"' in order to not have to use

that varibale r below. This works perfectly with JAWs and takes much less code,

buuuutttttt 508 does not recognize the 'scope attribute' because 508 was written

before the scope attribute was implemented in higher versions of html. I have

tried to get them to amend this for months but I just get the cold shoulder. No

one is around in that department that first drafted 508 and the people in charge

of 508 think the original is just fine.


Also, I don't think I saw anything on label tags and 'tabindex' attributes for

links,buttons,an input types. You must have these to pass a 508 audit.





SUMMARY="Active directory issues">

     <CAPTION CLASS="headerText2">The were <cfoutput> #get_apps.recordcount#

records returned for

     <cfif PORTFOLIO_NAME EQ "ALL">all portfolios.<cfelse>the #PORTFOLIO_NAME#


     <br class="blank">


     <TR CLASS="bg4">

     <TH ID="h1" CLASS="headerText2" WIDTH="35%" NOWRAP>&nbsp;Index&nbsp;</TH>

          <TH ID="h2" CLASS="headerText2" WIDTH="20%"


          <TH ID="h3" CLASS="headerText2" NOWRAP>&nbsp;Acronymn&nbsp;</TH>

          <TH ID="h4" CLASS="headerText2" NOWRAP>&nbsp;ACE Interim


          <TH ID="h6" CLASS="headerText2" WIDTH="35%"


          <TH ID="h10" CLASS="headerText2" NOWRAP>&nbsp;Action&nbsp;</TH>


     <CFSET R=1>

     <CFOUTPUT QUERY="get_apps">

     <TR CLASS="text" <CFIF EVALUATE(R MOD 2) EQ 0>bgcolor="white"</CFIF>>

          <TD ID="r#r# h1" NOWRAP>&nbsp;#INDEX_NUMBER#&nbsp;</TD>

          <TD ID="r#r# h2" NOWRAP>&nbsp;#NAME#&nbsp;</TD>

          <TD ID="r#r# h3" NOWRAP>&nbsp;#ACRONYMN#&nbsp;</TD>

          <TD ID="r#r# h4"


          <TD ID="r#r# h6" NOWRAP>&nbsp;#STATUS#&nbsp;</TD>


     <CFSET R=R+1>





        I've read over the documents you sent.  Overall it is a good overview, but, I feel it is lacking in good examples.  I noticed that in one of the documents, you state that all images except shims require an alt tag.  I'm guessing that 'shims' are your term for the oft used transparent images.  The HTML 4.0 specification from the W3C states

that all images require the alt attribute (it's not a tag but usually is called one anyway).  Since it is part of the specification, to be HTML 4.0 compliant, it must be in the IMG tag.  For 508, the attribute remains empty (ALT="").  This is important since IE (I think that's the one) will display the image name as the alt text if alt is missing.


You didn't mention table linearization which is an important aspect of understanding the impact 508 compliancy has on tables.


It is extremely important to 'pick your team' so to speak.  ADA-508 from the Access Board Committee has their rules and they are the empowered authority to make the rules.  WCAG is a specifications group and they have their own accessibility standards.  Some are in line with what the Board is wanting.  But, I have found the WCAG's guidance to be extremely restrictive.  Much harder to get their A, AA compliance than it is to meet the intent of the 508 rules.


I was on the access board's forum for months and finally left because of the confusion between the rules and the WCAG.

Some understood it but, hotter heads prevailed in the end.


Please don't take this the wrong way.  It is meant to be constructive though it probably doesn't come across that way.  I applaud your efforts and I hope more folks do something toward learning the 508 stuff.  It's a feather in the cap for any development company out there to be able to say that they create 508 compliant sites.


Table linearization

Table linearization is the screen reader approach to 'viewing' a table.


Basically, a left-to-right top-to-bottom cell-by-cell look through the table but when row spans and column spans are present, things can get weird.


Consider the attached image of a table.


It would be read by a screen reader in alphabetical order, A through G.  Depending on the layout, sighted users could easily see how it is structured and read it.  Screen readers have to process it logically which is to say they do it linearly.


Good linearization by 508 standards (and WCAG) means that the content of the table still makes sense when the table is




I was not sure how informed your users are with 508.  For those with no knowledge, it could be a little confusing trying to understand 508.    You do a good job of directing them to links to understand the regs.


I took a look through the article and slides.  Nothing really pops out.  You have done a good job of summarizing 508 and its regulations.  I made some notes in bold.  I have a tendency to be detailed so I would provide more information in the suggestion column.  But that's my preference and style.


Your presentation is very focused as it should be since you are primarily interested in CF and how it helps make web sites 508 compliant.  508 does cover accessibility for other disabilities, but the visually impaired seem to be most affected by what our expertise is in.

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